Lecturer of Geography Department
Social Faculty of Malang University
ABSTRACT: Changing a geographical learning paradigm has been implicating to the need of geographical learning models . The result of this research is Spatial Based Learning Model (SBL). It consist of seven steps, are communicating learning objective, observing location, place, and position of geographical objects or phenomena; communicating and conforming data and facts; elaborating and integrating concepts, principles and theories; discussing interrelationship physical and non physical phenomena; conclusion; reflection and follow-up. The results of the expert validation show that the validation score is higher than criteria, namely 85.71%> 76%. The result score of the try out is also higher than the criteria, namely 87.69%> 76%. Based on the results, the SBL is valid to be used of geographical learning subject at school.
Key Words: Learning model, Spatial Based Leaning, Geographical Subject
Nowdays, changing of learning paradigm is one of the nasional education issue in Indonesia. The awareness of the changing paradigm is higher and higher, because of people development in education, technology and sciences, and cultural values in a globalization era ((Kusnandar, 2008; Isjoni, 2010; Suara Merdeka, 2011; Degeng, 2005). Educational vision of developing countries should be more humane, democratic, and practical as well as religious in the future. Implementation of education necessary to refer the pillars of learning to know, learning to do, learning to be, and learning to live together.
Based on the performance of that education, it can produce output having insightful, intelligent, skilled and independent, high-integrity, and can appreciate the difference in the living together (Tilar, 2001). Education should be presented as something fun, liberating, humanizing and meaning of life (Ismanto, 2001). So, the implementation of the educational paradigm will motivate students to learn how to learn, learn to take decisions and responsibility, and learn to reflect on the implementation of the decision to act in the future.
Nationally, since 2006 the Ministry of Education has legalized the national learning standard which become a reference of teachers in planning, implementing, and evaluating. In the standard is mentioned, that the core values in learning are inspiring, interacting, challenging, fun, motivating, creativity and independence (Appendix Permendiknas, 2007). Learning objective, curriculum, and strategies should lead to the creation of an atmosphere that provide opportunities to experience growth in learning (Degeng, 2005). Learning is no longer seen as an attempt to prepare students to enter the future, but as a process that can support live anytime, anywhere and in any situation. Therefore, the most important of learning goal is learning itself, not the results solely.
In the era, the existence of conventional learning paradigm need to be reviewed. Learning which is based on the facts, drills and practices, laws and procedure are no longer. Learning paradigm needs to be developed further, based on real-world context through problems and projects, inquiry, discovery as well (Kamdi, 2004). Thus, learning is no longer from teaching to testing, but learning to continuous improvement. The learning quality will encourage students to understand subject core values by studying and discussing, observing, and problem-solving model. Students learn to care about the core values by developing skills of empathy, social relationship, community of moral, illustrative and inspiring to hear stories, and reflect on life experiences. In this context, it is necessary to develop a dialogical learning between teachers and students, students to students, and students with all the school citizens. Learning strategy in the classroom can be applied to cooperative learning by providing reinforcement in group activities.
In the context of geographical learning, several goals are:(1) understanding the spatial patterns, environment and territorial as well as related processes. (2) mastering the basic skills in acquiring data and information, communicating and applying knowledge of geography. (3) displaying the behavior of matter on the environment and use natural resources wisely and have a tolerance for cultural diversity (Permendiknas, 2006). These objectives include not only the cognitive aspects of learners in the form of knowledge about spatial patterns, environment and territorial as well as related processes, but also includes aspects of geographical skill skills to acquire, communicate, and apply the knowledge gained, even in the form of affective aspects of care for the environment and tolerance of cultural diversity where students are (Arjana, 2010).
Substantially, there are three geographical coverage of the Junior High School Subject (Permendiknas, No. 22/2006); Worosuprojo, 2010; Arjana, 2010). First, the field of geography includes the study of the earth, aspects and processes that shape it, causal and spatial relations of human with the environment, and human interaction with place. Secondly, the subjects of geography build and develop the learners understanding of variation and spatial organization of people, places and environments on the earth. Learners encourage to understand the aspects and physical processes that shape patterns of the earth, ecological characteristics and spatial distribution on the surface of the earth. Additionally motivated learners are actively and creatively to explore that culture and experience influence people’s perceptions of places and regions. Third, the knowledge, skills, and values of the geographical subjects is expected to build the ability of learners to behave, act smart, wise, and responsible in dealing with social problems, economic, and ecology.
Implementation of the geographical paradigm necessary to be developed in resulting a learning model that can accommodate demands of the new paradigm (Handoyo, 2003), such as: (1) learning material more concrete and real spatially. (2) emphasizing on student-centered, open and flexible. (3) problem-based learning strategies and collaborative projects. (4) developing inquiry soul and design skills. (6) the willingness to take action and reflection. (7) increasing the role of geography teacher as facilitator, consultant, counselor, and learner assistant. (8) utilizing computers as a tool, using dynamic media, and communicating throughout the world. (9) referring to performance appraisal, and open assessors.
Nowdays, geographical learning performance has not been able to meet such demands. There are some problem at its implementation. Workshop Teacher Collegial (MGMP) of Pasuruan (2010) indicated that there are some difficulties experienced by geography teachers to implement the new learning paradigm that are inspiring, interacting, challenging, fun, motivating, initiating, independence and creativity. According to Purwanto (2010) geographical learning faces some problems which is caused by several components, namely competence of teacher, learning materials, media, and evaluation of outcomes or learning process.
The constraints can impact to negative influence on the students’ competencies. The competencies can not be develop optimally, and finally it can also contribute to the thinking habit of students. Such conditions can cause sensitivity to geographical problems of students are not grow optimally, such as sensitivity to an environmental degradation problem having impact to the moral and ethical aspects, deterioration of social life which has led to social disintegration in society. Therefore, the alternative solution of the problem is to develop geographical learning model which reflects a spatial approach characteristic based on the active learning, cooperative learning and contextual learning. By the learning model is expected the student competencies in geography can be develop more optimum.
This research used procedural development design. Its steps are designed as follows (1) determining purposes and needs of the learning model. (2) collecting characteristics of geographical learning, competencies of geographical subject, development of learning method, characteristics of learner, learning process and standard. (3) examining contents of geographal subjects, characteristics of adolescence, active learning, cooperative and contextual learning. In addition, also studied results of seminars and research development of learning geography. (5) developing ideas by sharing and brainstorming to generate creative ideas. (6) designing learning to analyze all the material and determine the measures of spatial learning based on the model for product development. (7) conducting formative and summative evaluation and revision of the model in accordance with the results of the validation. (8) conducting product try out to collect data in determining the level of validity of the learning model. Trial design includes two stages, namely (a) review expert learning to know the accuracy of measures based on the spatial learning. (b) field trial to revise the learning model before using in the learning process.
The subjects try out in the development of this learning model is students of the class X SMAN 5 Malang. Expert of geographical learning is geographic educator having qualified S2 and / or S3 in technology education /learning, they have an experienced learning in geography.
Questionnaire of the data collection instrument in the form of closed and open questionnaire. Enclosed questionnaire used to capture the assessment information, while an open questionnaire to solicit feedback learning experts, practitioners, and the audience. Data analysis was conducted descriptively using a validation expert (expert judgment) and trial by the audience. Validity test performed on the steps of learning, and trials carried out with the trial on the audience. Validators provide an assessment of the steps the SBL model. Validator provides score and suggestions on the questionnaire given to him. In addition, the validator also gives a conclusion of validity of the learning model that has been produced. The results were analyzed by scoring criteria having minimum limit 76%. While, suggestions for improvement of validator used as a learning step that has been formulated.
The result of this development is Spatial Based Learning Model (SBL) for geographical learning. It consist of seven steps, namely communicating learning objective, observing location, place, and position of geographical objects or phenomena; communicating and conforming data and facts; elaborating and integrating concepts, principles and theories; discussing interrelationship physical and non physical phenomena; conclusion; reflection and follow-up.
First, communicating learning objective. This step is intended to ensure the competence to be achieved in learning. It also needs to be communicated items of material to be studied, and the activities of students in achieving that objective.
Second, observing location, place, and position of geographical objects or phenomena. This step is to move the learner attempts to identify spatial objects related to the structures, patterns and spatial processes. Spatial objects that are observed in the form of spatial phenomena that contain essential or important issues and related learning materials. Objects are chosen carefully by educators through discussions among educators, and discussions with students can provide input. Observation can be made directly by observing the field or indirectly by looking carefully photo slide or video at a LCD. In our observation needs to be assisted by using a map. Steps of the observation of activities are: (1) learners observe the overall spatial phenomena either directly or indirectly. (2) learners recognize the location absolutely and relatively by helping of maps. (3) learners recognize various objects / phenomena of spatial biotic or abiotic, (4) learners recognize zones/areas land use. (5) learners recognize the same phenomenon in other regions of the earth surface.
Third, communicating and conforming data and facts. These steps are to communicate results of the observation orally. All the results are presented clearly, such as object type and its characteristics, absolute and relative location, and land use. Confirmation step is a step to check the results the observations that have been communicated by the learners. Checking process carried out in detail by other learners and / or teachers. Steps of the communication and conformation activities are: (1) students present the results of observations have been made. Submission of the observations are carried out by 3-5 students, and the results of observation can be revealed more. (2) Other learners do confirm the observations that have been delivered alternately to clear, after communication activities. In confirmation of this results, teachers have an important role to help the confirmation of ambiguity that occurs in the learning.
Fourth, elaborating and integrating concepts, principles and theories. These steps are two simultaneous actions taken to expand the meaning of new experiences that are based on prior knowledge learners. Knowledge of students about the phenomenon of geosphere can be expanded by examining the process, relate it to real events, extending its spread to other regions, examines its characteristic with other phenomena in different areas, and predict likely occur in the future. Expansion of knowledge is conducted step by step by connecting the real world spatially. Step of elaboration and integration are: (1) working on worksheet has been prepared by teacher. (2) read the learning materials (textbooks, journals, articles, brochures, and other sources that relevant to the material being studied to expand knowledge. (3) Answering questions with the substance of the teaching material that has been read. (4) developing simple scientific writing, giving meaningful at expanding of knowledge. For example learners develop conceptual scientific work in simple 1-2 pages about the city of Jakarta, and flooding solution.
Fifth, discussing interrelationship between a physical and non physical phenomena. This step is a vehicle for students learning to talk, share ideas and experiences about spatial phenomena and problems. Students are given the opportunities to share knowledge that has been confirmed, elaborated, and interpreted contextually with issues larger or public, and develop problem-solving ideas that do learners. Steps of the discussion are: (1) students form study groups consisting of 3-5 people. (2) learners to discuss problems of spatial phenomena. (3) learners present the results of group discussion.
Sixth, Conclusion. This step is an effort to strengthen and ensure the competence of the students briefly about spatial phenomena and its problems. The steps can be done with the following actions. (1) teachers can choose one among the four methods of inference, namely the individual, either orally, or writing individually, the group verbally and in writing groups. (2) limited time to conclude between 3-5 minutes. (3) the teacher gives the opportunity or requests one-movement student conclusions. If deemed necessary can be repeated on other students until the conclusion deemed adequate.
Seventh, reflection and follow-up. These steps are activities to learn to look back on learning that has lasted, or respond to an event that occurs related learning problems. The steps of reflection and follow-up activities are: (1) learners express purpose was understood and that has not been understood. (2) Students can suggest solutions to overcome their problems. (3) The teacher gives consideration and strengthening problem-solving options that are taken by students. (4) Students expressed her feelings after attending a series of learning processes.
EXPERT VALIDATION OF LEARNING
The results of the validation of product development are: (1) validation of learning experts, and (2) try out of audience. Data of the learning expert validation results can be seen on the table 1.
The results of validation show that from the seven learning steps which were validated, there were three steps of learning having score 2 (valid), namely the communicating learning objective, observing location, place, and position of geographical objects or phenomena, and conclusion. While, the four other learning steps having score 1 (revision), namely communication and confirmation data and facts, elaboration and integration concepts, principles and theories; discussion interrelationship physical and non physical phenomena, and reflection and follow-up. Based on the suggestion of the first validator is conducted an improvement on the development product that need to be revised.
Tabel 1 Score Results of Learning Expert Validation
|Validator I||Validator 2|
|1||Communicating learning objective||2||Valid||2||Valid|
|2||Observing location, place, and position of geographical objects or phenomena||2||Valid||1||Revised|
|3||Communicating and conforming data and facts||1||Revised||1||Revised|
|4||Elaborating and integrating concepts, principles and theories||1||Revised||2||Valid|
|5||Discussing interrelationship physical and non physical phenomena||1||Revised||2||Valid|
|7||Reflection and follow-up||1||Revised||2||Valid|
After validating of the first phase is completed, the development of products that have been revised, was submitted for validation to the second stage. The result of the second stage showed that from the seven learning steps that have been validated at the first phase, there were five steps of learning steps having score 2 (valid), namely the objective of learning, elaboration and integration concepts, principles and theories, discussion interrelationship physical and non physical phenomena, conclusions, reflection and follow-up . While, these two other steps having score 1 (revision), namely observing location, place, and position of geographical objects or phenomena, and communication and confirmation data and facts. Based on the result that it is suggested to be revised. The try out results of validated product after product development of spatial-based learning model as follows.
Tabel 2 Score of Try Out Result
|Score and Frequency||
|1||Communicating learning objective||5||31||83,88||Valid|
|2||Observing location, place, and position of geographical objects or phenomena||1||35||97,17||Valid|
|3||Communicating and conforming data and facts||4||32||88,89||Valid|
|4||Elaborating and integrating concepts, principles and theories||5||31||83,88||Valid|
|5||Discussing interrelationship physical and non physical phenomena||5||31||83,88||Valid|
|7||Reflection and follow-up||5||31||83,88||Valid|
From the seven steps of learning, the highest score is 97, 17%, and the lowest one is 83.88%. The highest score of steps are observing location, place, and position of geographical objects or phenomena, and the lowest score are communicating learning objective, elaborating and integrating concepts, principles and theories, discussion interrelationship physical and non physical phenomena, and reflection and follow-up. Score of the try out showed that the overall score of the test are predetermined criteria. It means the learning steps can be accepted by learners and can be applied by educators in the learning process.
Analysis of data validation, both the first validation and the second validation are listed in the table 3.
Based on the suggestion of the first validator that the non valid learning steps need to be revised. Revisions were conducted as follow: (1) using of term. It is should be used terms that do not cause confusion understanding. (2) the term of question and answer should be replaced with the communication and confirmation. (3) The con-structivistic term should be replaced with elaboration and integration. (4) the collaboration term should be replaced with discussion. (5) the reflection steps should be completed with follow-up activities. (6) the assessment steps should be deleted as a part of the learning syntax.
Tabel 3 Follow-Up of Validation Result
|Validation I||Validation II|
|Number of Items||Final Score||Follow-Up||Number of Items||Final Score||Follow-up|
|Used with heavy revision||5||
|Used with minor revision|
Based on the suggestion of the second validator that the learning steps that were non valid needs to be revised. Revisions were conducted as a follow: (1) the observation steps are necessary to be completed by its problem. It will also clarify the problem-solving in step discussion. (2) in this step of communication and confirmation the attendance of teachers is important. (3) the other suggestions are improvement of sentences.
Data analysis of the try out result show score 221 of 252 or 87.69%. Referring to the criterion validity of 76%, the score of the try out results is greater than the defined criteria, or 87.69%> 76%. Based on the criteria of validity, the product development of the SBL model is feasible to be used in learning and does not need to retry out.
Tabel 4 Follow Up of Each Data Items
|No||Criteria||%||Items Number||%||Follow Up|
The results of this development is a Spatial-Based Learning model (SBL) having seven steps, namely communicating learning objective, observing location, place, and position of geographical objects or phenomena; communicating and conforming data and facts; elaborating and integrating concepts, principles and theories; discussing interrelationship physical and non physical phenomena; conclusion; reflection and follow-up. The seventh steps were feasible as a learning model of geographical learning at school.
The feasibility of the model doe to number of advantages that is significant at improving geographical learning. There are, at least eight excellences, namely (1) starts from the contextual spatial phenomena. (2) increasing the precision in the observation. (3) turning on to think and work independently. (4) developing a habit of sharing knowledge/ experiences. (5) building a reflective attitude to continuous improvement. (6) work in teams. (7) learning materials sourced from the primary data. (8) the process of determining the outcomes.
The eighth SBL advantages arose, because it is supported by four approaches. The fourth approaches are spatial approach, active learning approach, cooperative learning approach, as well as contextual learning approach. The four approaches are mutually reinforcing interaction with the SBL model. First, SBL apply the concept of active learning. This concept used in this model are (1) encourage students to work to discover process and apply information. (2) learning students to work together, work as a team, divide the work, and build a common view (Kinney, 2007 in Bogart, 2009; Silberman, 2010). The application of active learning in SBL, among others: (1) encourage students to conduct observation to collect spatial information, analyze the spatial information obtained, and apply them individually or in groups. (2) engage students to work as a team in conducting the study of spatial information. (3) build a new perspective through discussion of spatial issues.
Secondly, SBL apply the principles of cooperative learning, are (1) positive interdependence, (2) individual responsibility, (3) face to face, (4) communication between members, (5) evaluation of group process (Roger and Johnson at Lie, 2002; Slavin, 2005; Kagan at Sutjipto, 2011). The principle of cooperative learning is applied in SBL, among others (1) creating interaction between students to complete task together. (2) strengthening individual responsibility in elaboration of knowledge activities. (3) facilitating students do face to face in groups and classes to examine the spatial problem. 4) involving students in communicating the results confirmation and communication activities.
Third, SBL apply the principles of contextual learning, are to help students relate the content of the subject matter with the state of the real world, motivate students to connect the knowledge gained and its application in the lives of students as family members, as citizens and as workers later (U.S. Department of Education and the National School-to -Work Office, 2001). Contextual learning principles are applied in SBL, among others (1) involving students to observe spatial phenomena, such as land use, population and activities, and links the physical environment with locals. (2) motivating students to do the debriefing in communication and confirmation activities. (3) elaborating knowledge by reading, discussing, and presenting. (4) involving students in discussing to build a learning community. (5) doing authentic assessment.
Fourth, SBL based on spatial phenomena and problems. To recognize and understand spatial phenomena and problems using the principles of geography, namely the principle of distribution, interrelationship and description (Sumaadmadja, 2003). The principle of distribution points to the location of the spread of the phenomena / problems that occur, the principle refers to the interrelation of linkage phenomena / spatial problems that occur with other phenomena, and the principle of description refers to the explanation and disclosure of phenomena or spatial problems.
Application of spatial approaches in SBL, among others (1) involving students make observations to identify a particular spatial objects according to the learning objectives. (2) identify spatial problems as a result of the interaction between natural and human factors. (3) using the principles of geography and geographical questions to recognize and understand spatial phenomena.
Models of spatial learning has been developed by Siler (1998) with two models, namely the Classroom Floor Models and Papier Mache Models. Floor model class is an effort to demonstrate an incident in the classroom, and model of the pulp is an effort involving the students to make a scale model of an event. Learning strategy with both models are made to explain historical events. The incident tested presented in the classroom so that students more easily understand substantially and spatial context.
Development of models in learning geography longstanding (Ball et al, 1971). However, the basis for the development of different learning models from time to time. In the era of the 1960s, the base model of the development of learning on the subject matter so more patterned on the forms of diagrams, graphs, and other similar visual. Meanwhile, in the post-2000s is based on the modeling of learning geography student activities, such as the activity of thinking, mental, emotional, teamwork, writing, and visual. For example in the lecture geography, spatial learning is implicitly performed at the Field Work I and II (MPA Guidelines, 2008). The steps of learning include: (1) determining the object of study, (2) determining the location, (3) identification of objects, and (4) the association of elements in the physical and social surroundings. Thus, SBL is a new learning model in geographical learning that based on the active learning, cooperative learning, contextual learning and spatial approaches.
The result of the development is Spatial Based Learning (SBL). It consist of seven steps, are communicating learning objective, observing location, place, and position of geographical objects or phenomena; communicating and conforming data and facts; elaborating and integrating concepts, principles and theories; discussing interrelationship physical and non physical phenomena; conclusion; reflection and follow-up. The results of the expert validation show that the validation score is higher than criteria, namely 85.71%> 76%. The result score of the tryout is also higher than the criteria, namely 87.69%> 76%. Based on the results, the SBL is valid to be used of geographical learning subject at school.
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